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Brief Manuscript Guidelines for Korean Journal of General Education

Academic research papers for Korean Journal of General Education should follow the APA (American Psychological Association) style of writing. If there are any issues not covered in these guidelines, please refer to the separate file for Manuscript Guidelines and the APA manual 7th edition. Manuscripts that do not follow the APA style will not be accepted for submission or publication.
Reference: APA Style website (https://apastyle.apa.org).

1. Structure of Article

  • ▪ Korean articles: Write in the following order of "Title, Author, Abstract in Korean, Keywords in Korean, Body, References, Abstract in English, Keywords in English."
  • ▪ English articles: Write in the following order of "Title, Author, Abstract in English, Keywords in English, Body, References, Abstract in Korean, Keywords in Korean."

2. Title Notation

  • Generally, only the subject heading should be used in article titles. However, when including a subtitle after the main title, a hyphen (-) is used for Korean articles and a colon (:) is used for English articles.
  • ex) Korean title: 교양교육 표기 방법 연구-참고문헌을 중심으로
      English title: General education of East Asia in 21st-century: A personal perspective

3. Author Notation

  • Indicate the author's affiliation (institution name and department or major), position, and email. If there are co-authors, indicate their roles (e.g. first author, corresponding author) before listing their affiliations.
  • ex) Single author’s notation: 교양대학교 학부대학, 교수, kj12@lac.edu
      Co-authors’ notation: 1) 제1저자, 대한대학교 교양대학, 조교수, aabcd12@daehan.ac.kr
    2) 교신저자, 민국대학교 교양칼리지, 부교수, efg@minguk.edu
  • * Examples of affiliations and positions
    ProfessorKor홍길동, oo대학교 학부대학, 부교수
    EngHong, Gildong, Associate Professor, University College, oo University
    LecturerKor홍길동, oo대학교 교양대학, 강사
    EngHong, Gildong, Lecturer, College of General Education, oo University
    ResearcherKor홍길동, oo대학교 교양교육연구소, 연구원
    EngHong, Gildong, Research Fellow, Research Institute for Liberal Education, oo University
    Graduate StudentKor홍길동, oo대학교 교육학과, 박사과정생
    EngHong, Gildong, Doctoral Student, Department of Education, oo University

4. Numbering of Heading

  • Numbering of heading in the text should be within three levels as '1. 1.1. 1.1.1.', and use '① ② ③' when using four levels.

5. Citation

5.1. Basic Format of Citation

  • Citations should be done as in-text citation in the main text, following either the parenthetical citation or the narrative citation format:
  • ☞ Parenthetical citation: This format presents the author's name and publication year in parentheses. The author's name and publication year should be separated by a comma (,) and a period (.) should be added after closing the parentheses.
  • ☞ Narrative citation: This format presents information about the cited literature as part of the sentence. The author's name should be in the main text, and the publication year should be in parentheses immediately following the author's name.
  • * In Korean papers, parentheses indicating citation information are attached to the preceding word, while in English papers, a space is inserted between the preceding word and the parentheses.
Parenthetical citationNarrative citation
교양교육이 학습자의 융복합적 창의성을 제고하기 위해 서는 현행 배분이수제의 한계점을 극복해야 한다(홍석민, 2022). 홍석민(2022)은 교양교육이 학습자의 융복합적 창의성을 제고하기 위해 현행 배분이수제의 한계점을 극복해야 한다고 주장했다.
Falsely balanced news coverage can distort the public's perception of an expert consensus on an issue (Koehler, 2016). Koehler (2016) noted the dangers of falsely balanced news coverage.

5.2. Number of Authors to Include in In-Text Citations

  • When citing in the body of the text, for Korean authors, both the last name and first name should be included, while for English authors, only the last name should be included.
  • The format for citing depends on the number and type of authors, as follows:
  • ☞ One or two authors: Include all author names.
  • ☞ Three or more authors: Only the first author's name is listed, followed by “외” in Korean and "et al." in English.
  • ☞ Author distinction: When listing the names of multiple Korean authors in English, a comma is used to separate each name. In parenthetical citations, English author names are separated by an ampersand (&), while in narrative citations, 'and' is used. (Note: In tables and figures, "&" is used between author names in both parenthetical and narrative citations.)
Author type Parenthetical citation Narrative citation
One author (홍석민, 2022)
(Meadows, 2020)
Meadows (2020)
Two authors (임선애, 박일우, 2015)
(McCombes & George, 2022)
임선애, 박일우(2015)
McCombes and George (2022)
Three or more authors (박정하 외, 2017)
(Plumb et al., 2020)
박정하 외(2017)
Plumb et al. (2020)

5.3. Citing Specific Parts of a Source

  • To avoid plagiarism, the author's name, publication year, appropriate credit information (e.g., page number) should be indicated when citing specific parts of sources.
Quotation Parenthetical citation Narrative citation
single page (홍석민, 2022, p. 72) 홍석민(2022, p. 72)
(Anders, 2015, p. 3) Anders (2015, p. 3)
continuous pages (홍석민, 2022, pp. 72-74) 홍석민(2022, pp. 72-74)
(Anders, 2015, pp. 3-4) Anders (2015, pp. 3-4)
discontinuous pages (홍석민, 2022, pp. 69, 73) 홍석민(2022, pp. 69, 73)
(Anders, 2015, pp. 9, 15) Anders (2015, pp. 9, 15)

5.4. Citing Multiple Works

  • When citing multiple works, follow these guidelines:
  • ☞ When listing multiple works by different authors, arrange them in order of the author's name (in Korean 가,나,다 order or English alphabetical order) and separate them with a semicolon (;).
  • ☞ When domestic and foreign works are listed together, list the domestic work first.
  • ☞ When listing two or more works by the same author, list them in order of publication year and use a comma to separate them. If the publication year is the same, distinguish them by adding the lowercase letters 'a', 'b', 'c' after the year.

5.5. Translated, Reprinted, Republished, and Reissued Dates

  • When citing a translated work, revised edition, or reissued work, include both the original publication year and the year of the translated, revised, or reissued edition. The two years should be separated by a slash (/), with the earlier year listed first.
Parenthetical citationNarrative citation
(최선경 외, 2006/2022) 최선경 외(2006/2022)
(Piaget, 1966/2000) Piaget (1966/2000)

6. Tables and Figures

  • Tables and figures are labeled as follows:
  • Numbering: All tables and figures are numbered using Arabic numerals in bold at the top. In Korean papers, angle brackets (< >) are used for table numbers and square brackets ([ ]) are used for figure numbers, and they are left-aligned. In English papers, parentheses are used for table and figure numbers, and they are left-aligned without using brackets.
  • ex) Korean articles: <표 1>, <표 2>, <표 3> / [그림 1], [그림 2], [그림 3]
      English articles: Table 1, Table 2, Table 3 / Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3
  • Title: All tables and figures are given a short but descriptive title. In Korean papers, table and figure titles are written in regular font, left-aligned, and located under the table or figure number. In English papers, table and figure titles are written in italics, with key words capitalized, left-aligned, and located under the table or figure number.
  • Note: Notes can be included below tables and figures.
<표 2>
IMD 교육경쟁력 정성지표 국제순위와 점수
(단위:위, 점)
범주 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
교육경쟁력 순위1) 25(63) 30(63) 27(63) 30(64) 29(63)
대학교육(경쟁사회 요구에
부합 정도)
한국순위 49 55 48 47 46
한국점수 4.8 4.4 5.3 5.2 5.2
경영교육(산업계 요구에
부합 정도)
한국순위 47 51 48 46 46
한국점수 5.1 5.0 5.5 5.7 5.6
언어능력(기업 요구에 부합
한국순위 33 44 38 35 45
한국점수 6.0 5.7 6.1 6.2 5.6
과학교육2)(학교에서 과학
교육의 강조 정도)
한국순위 31 - - - -
한국점수 5.6 - - - -
  • 주. 1) (   ) 안은 국가 수임.
  • 2) 과학교육 지표는 2019년부터 제외됨.
  • 3) 지표누리(2023.2.22.)에 게시된 “IMD 교육경쟁력 국제순위”를 인용한 것으로, 데이터의 출처 는 IMD의 World Competitiveness Yearbook임.
[그림 4]
고등교육 이수율
  • 주. 1) 고등교육이수율은 25~64세 인구 중 고등교육 이수자의 비율임.
  • 2) 지표누리(2023.2.22.)에 게시된 “고등교육 이수율”을 인용한 것으로 데이터의 출처는 OECD의 Education at a Glance임.
<표 5>
성별에 따른 창의적 사고력의 변화에 대한 공분산 분석 결과
범주 gender n Pre-test Post-test Adj.M p
28 71.25(15.84) 89.43(25.58) 93.95 .833
44 79.43(16.69) 96.05(17.22) 93.17
28 72.96(20.15) 93.61(28.59) 96.54 .937
44 78.30(17.71) 98.75(20.80) 96.88
28 76.21(12.51) 92.18(24.30) 96.51 .591
44 83.06(14.33) 97.23(17.94) 94.47
창의적 사고력
(creative thinking skills)
28 73.46(15.82) 91.64(25.51) 95.65 .816
44 80.20(15.86) 97.36(17.92) 94.81
[그림 1]
Table Figure
Table 2
The Ratio of the Value of Newly Acquired Loans to Acquisition Target
Portfolio Size Acquisition Target
Jan.2009-Jun.2009 Jul.2009-Feb.2010
0═500,000 50,000 60,000
500,001═1,000,000 70,000 80,000
1,000,001═1,500,000 90,000 100,000
1,500,001═2,000,000 110,000 120,000
2,000,000═2,500,000 130,000 140,000
2,500,001 or more 150,000 160,000

Note. Reprinted from “When Salespeople Manage Customer Relationships: Multidimensional Incentives and Private Information,” by M. Kim, K. Sudhir, K. Uetake, and R. Caneles, 2019, Journal of Marketing, 56(5), p. 765. Copyright 2019 by the American Marketing Association.

Figure 1
Proverty Rate in the United States, 2017

Note. The map does not include data for Puerto Rico. Adapted from 2017 Poverty Rate in the United States, by U.S. Census Bureau, 2017 (https://www.census.gov/library/visualizations/2018/comm/acs-poverty-map.html). In the public domain.

7. Reference Notation

  • All references are written in English.
  • For Korean works, translate into English and add the Korean citation in brackets ([ ]) with two-space indentation.
  • A reference consists of four elements: author, date, title, and source, separated by periods.

7.1. Author

  • The author's name should be written as follows:
  • Korean authors: Write the surname followed by the given name, separated by a comma.
  • English authors: Write the surname first, followed by a comma and the initials of the given name, with a comma separating multiple authors. An ampersand '&' should be placed before the last author's name.
  • ☞ End the author's name with a period. However, if the last author's name ends with initials, do not duplicate the period indicating the end of the author's name.
  • ☞ The English transliteration of Korean author names should follow the author's preferred spelling in English, including the use of spaces, hyphens (-), and capitalization, as indicated in sources such as English abstracts.
Types Examples
two 박정하, 홍석민.
three 이윤빈, 최선경, 홍성연.
one Zaslow, E.
two Soto, C. J., & John, O. P.
five Pascarella, E. T., Wolniak, G. C., Seifert, T. A., Cruce, T. M., & Blaich, C. F.
English transliteration
of Korean author names
전우치 Jeon, Woochi → Jeon, W.
Jeon, Woo-chi → Jeon, W.
Jeon, Woo Chi → Jeon, W. C.
Jeon, Woo-Chi → Jeon, W. C.

7.2. Date

  • The format for date is as follows:
  • ☞ The date refers to the publication date of the work and is enclosed in parentheses.
  • ☞ Korean date format uses dots (periods) to separate the year, month, and day, in that order.
    In English, the date format uses a comma after the year, and the month is written out as a word, followed by the day as a number.
  • ☞ A period is placed at the end of the date notation to indicate its completion.
Types Examples
Publication date Kor (2009).
(2023. 2.).
(2020. 6. 27.).
Eng (2007).
(2020, May).
(2021, February 2).

7.3. Title

  • The title should be written as follows:
  • ☞The titles of chapters in books or articles should be written in regular font (or roman), while the titles of standalone works such as books, reports, and websites should be written in italics (or in a slanted font).
  • ☞When citing non-academic sources, include the type of the work in brackets ([ ]).
  • ☞The title should end with a period.
Types Examples
Titles of articles or
chapters in books
Kor 자유교육의 성격 다시 보기.
Eng The impact of non-cognitive ability on the performance of the labor market.
Title of a standalone
work (book, report,
website, etc.)
Kor 학부교육 선도대학 교양교육 성과진단 연구 (RR-2016-23-642).
Eng Instructional design theories and models (2nd ed.).
Title of non-academic
works (audiobooks,
YouTube videos,
photos, etc.)
Kor 대학 글쓰기 교육의 유형 및 특성 [파워포인트 슬라이드].
Eng The global trend of liberal arts education [Video].

7.4. Source

  • The format for sources is as follows:
  • ☞ Periodical sources (journals, magazines, newspapers, etc.) should be cited with the title, volume number, issue number, and page range in that order. For books, the publisher name should be included.
  • ☞ End the citation with a period. However, if a DOI or URL is available, include it after the period.
  • ☞ For regular periodicals, the title should be written in italics, with the first letter of each word capitalized except for prepositions, articles, and conjunctions. The volume number is separated from the title by a comma and written in italics, while the issue number is written in parentheses immediately after the volume number without a space, using regular font.
    The page range is separated from the issue number by a comma and written in regular font without 'pp', followed by a period. If a DOI is available, list it as a hyperlink starting with "https://".
Types Examples
Periodical sources Kor 교양교육연구, 16(2), 65-79. https://doi.org/10.46392/kjge.2022.16.2.65
Eng Korean Journal of General Education, 16(1), 51-59. https://doi.org/10.46392/kjge.2022.16.1.51
Books Kor 연세대학교출판부.
Eng Yale University Press.

7.5. Reference List Format and Order

  • The order of the reference list is as follows:
  • ☞ The reference list is arranged in alphabetical order based on the English spelling of the author's last name.
  • ☞ If there are multiple works by the same author, they are arranged in order of publication date, with the earliest one first.
  • ☞ If there are multiple works by the same author in the same year and need to be distinguished, a lowercase alphabet letter is added after the year.

✥ Reference List Order Example


  • Anders, G. (2017). You can do anything: The surprising power of a “useless” liberal arts education. Brown and Company.
  • Coe, G. Y. (2019). General education learning outcomes assessment for continuous improvement (Publication No. 27735375). [Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
  • Lee, J. W. (2021, August 20). The crisis of humanities with the scientific technology. Kyosushinmun. http://www.kyosu.net/news/articleView.html?idxno=73958
  • [이중원. (2021. 8. 20.). 인류의 위기와 과학기술. 교수신문. http://www.kyosu.net/news/articleView.html?idxno=73958]
  • Purdue Online Writing Lab. (2022). APA style workshop. Purdue University. https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_overview_and_workshop.html
  • The Society for the Study of Liberal Arts and Sciences (Ed.). (2020). Strolling with science, a cannon of natural science. Chungabook.
  • [교양과학연구회 (편). (2020). 과학산책, 자연과학의 변주곡. 청아출판사.]
  • Son, D. (2020a). Religious education as liberal-general education. Journal of Liberal Arts and Sciences Education, 1(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.37998/LE.2020.1.1.1
  • [손동현. (2020a). 교양교육으로서의 종교교육. 교양기초교육연구, 1(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.37998/LE.2020.1.1.1]
  • Son, D. (2020b). Liberal education in the age of intelligent technology. In Korea National Institute for General Education (Ed.), Proceedings of 2020 International Forum on Liberal Education (pp. 22-49). AK Design.
  • [손동현. (2020b). 지능기술시대의 교양교육. 한국교양기초교육원 (편), 2020 국제 교양교육 포럼 자료집 (pp. 22-49). AK Design.]
  • Son, S. N. (2022). Reform and prospects of liberal education. Hakjisa.
  • [손승남. (2022). 교양교육의 개혁과 전망. 학지사.]
  • TED. (2019, November 13). The danger of AI is weirder than you think | Janelle Shane [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OhCzX0iLnOc
  • Yoshimi, S. (2022). The shock of abolition of the liberal arts department (S. Kim, Trans.). Somyungbooks. (Original work published 2016)
  • [요시미 슌야. (2022). 문계 학부 폐지의 충격 (김승구, 역). 소명출판. (원서출판 2016)]

8. Abstract

  • All papers must include a Korean and an English abstract that concisely and accurately summarizes the content of the paper in both languages.
  • The abstract should be written as follows:
  • ☞ It should clearly and precisely reflect the purpose and content of the paper.
  • ☞ The abstract should be composed in the following order: title, author (position, affiliation), summary, keywords.
  • ☞ The length of the abstract should be no more than 250 words, based on the English abstract and it should contain 3-5 keywords.
  • ☞ The abstract should be written in one paragraph.
  • ☞ The content and keywords of the Korean and English abstracts should be the same.

9. Deletion of Personal Information

  • All information that can identify the author, such as name, affiliation, email, and phone number, should not be included in the submitted paper for review.

10. Effective Date: These guidelines will be effective from January 1, 2018.

11. Revision: These revised guidelines will be effective from June 1, 2023.


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